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Protozoa Test Kit

A large number of the vials are unique to this kit, but the kit contains some protozoa that are also in the Fungus 1 Test Kit and Parasite 2 Test Kit. In addition the three most medically significant protozoa from the Lyme Plus test kit are included here.

37 vials.

Protozoa Test Kit

Ref: 8110

£44.93

 

All prices exclusive of VAT

protozoa under microscope

  • Detailed Description

    Protozoa are the simplest, most primitive type of animal, consisting of a single cell. They are resistant to antibiotics.

     

    37 vials.

     

    A large number of the vials are unique to this kit, but the kit contains some protozoa that are also in the Fungus 1 Test Kit and Parasite 2 Test Kit. In addition the three most medically significant protozoa from the Lyme Plus test kit are included here.

     

    PZ 01    Acanthamoeba Sp., Trophozoites    
    Inhabit a variety of air, soil, and water environments; cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis and have been associated with cutaneous lesions and sinusitis.

    PZ 02    Babesia Bigemina    
    North and South America, Southern Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Causes Babesiosis /Piroplasmosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, redwater fever, tick fever, and Nantucket fever. Gives malaria-like symptoms. As a result, malaria is a common misdiagnosis for the disease; for 25% of cases in adults and half of cases in children, the disease is asymptomatic or mild with flu-like symptoms.

    PZ 03    Babesia Divergens    
    Has been found in Turkey, Spain, Canary Islands, Tunisia, Austria, France and Norway. Causes Babesiosis /Piroplasmosis; infections have a much higher fatality rate (42%) than with other strains and present with the most severe symptoms: haemoglobinuria followed by jaundice, a persistently high fever, chills and sweats. If left untreated, can develop into shock-like symptoms with pulmonary oedema and renal failure.

    PZ 04    Babesia Microti / Theileria Microti    
    Common in US; causes Babesiosis /Piroplasmosis; also known as Texas cattle fever, redwater fever, tick fever, and Nantucket fever. For 25% of cases in adults and half of cases in children, the disease is asymptomatic or mild with flu-like symptoms. Symptoms are characterized by irregular fevers, chills, headaches, general lethargy, pain and malaise.

    PZ 05    Balantidium Coli, Cysts    
    Common in the Philippines, but it can be found anywhere in the world, especially among those that are in close contact with pigs - main source of infection usually through water contaminated with their faeces; causes the disease Balantidiasis (diarrhoea, constipation); perforation of the colon may also occur in acute infections which can lead to life-threatening situations;

    PZ 06    Balantidium Coli, Trophozoites
    Common in the Philippines, but it can be found anywhere in the world, especially among those that are in close contact with pigs - main source of infection usually through water contaminated with their faeces; causes the disease Balantidiasis (diarrhoea, constipation); perforation of the colon may also occur in acute infections which can lead to life-threatening situations.

    PZ 07    Chilomastix Mesnili, Cysts    
    Found more frequently in warm climates; medically considered to be non-pathogenic.

    PZ 08    Chilomastix Mesnili, Trophozoites    
    Found more frequently in warm climates; medically considered to be non-pathogenic.

    PZ 09    Cryptosporidium Parvum    
    Causes cryptosporidiosis (primary symptoms are acute, watery, and non-bloody diarrhoea); other symptoms may include anorexia, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain; other sites include the lung, liver and gall bladder where it causes respiratory cryptosporidosis, hepatitis and cholecystitis.

    PZ 10    Dientamoeba Fragilis, Trophozoites    
    Causes gastrointestinal upset in some people, but not in others; an important cause of travellers' diarrhoea, chronic diarrhoea, fatigue and failure to thrive in children. No cyst stage.
     
    PZ 11    Endolimax Nana, Cysts    
    Originally thought to be non-pathogenic, but studies now suggest it can cause intermittent or chronic diarrhoea.

    PZ 12    Endolimax Nana, Trophozoites    
    Originally thought to be non-pathogenic, but studies now suggest it can cause intermittent or chronic diarrhoea.

    PZ 13    Entamoeba Coli, Cysts    
    Commonly found in the lower intestine; can cause liver abscesses, fever, abdominal pain, food poisoning.  

    PZ 14    Entamoeba Coli, Trophozoites    
    Commonly found in the lower intestine; can cause liver abscesses, fever, abdominal pain, food poisoning.
     
    PZ 15    Entamoeba Gingivalis    
    Found near the base of the teeth, and in periodontal pockets in 95% of people with gum disease; rarely found in people with healthy gums; transmission is direct from one person to another by kissing, or by sharing eating utensils. (No known cyst stage).

    PZ 16    Entamoeba Hartmanni, Cysts and Trophozoites    
    Commonly found in the intestinal tract but considered non-pathogenic.

    PZ 17    Entamoeba Histolytica, Cysts    
    Infection can be asymptomatic; symptoms include amoebic dysentery, bloody diarrhoea, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, amoeboma and amoebic liver abscess. Most common in countries with poor sanitation.

    PZ 18    Entamoeba Histolytica, Trophozoites    
    Infection can be asymptomatic; symptoms include amoebic dysentery, bloody diarrhoea, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, amoeboma and amoebic liver abscess. Most common in countries with poor sanitation.

    PZ 19    Enterocytozoon Bieneusi    Found in a wide variety of hosts including pigs, humans, and other mammals; an important and rapidly emerging opportunistic disease, occurring mainly, but not exclusively, in severely immunocompromised patients with AIDS, resulting in diarrhoea and  acalculous cholecystitis (the main opening to the gallbladder gets blocked).

    PZ 20    Giardia Lamblia, Cysts    
    The most common pathogenic parasitic infection in humans worldwide; one of the most common parasites infecting cats, dogs and birds. Infection can occur through contaminated and food, or by the faecal-oral route through poor hygiene practices; symptoms include weakness in the body, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, loose or watery stools, stomach cramps, upset stomach, projectile vomiting, bloating, excessive gas, and burping but may be asymptomatic.

    PZ 21    Giardia Lamblia, Trophozoites    
    The most common pathogenic parasitic infection in humans worldwide; one of the most common parasites infecting cats, dogs and birds. Infection can occur through contaminated and food, or by the faecal-oral route through poor hygiene practices; symptoms include weakness in the body, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, loose or watery stools, stomach cramps, upset stomach, projectile vomiting, bloating, excessive gas, and burping but may be asymptomatic.

    PZ 22    Iodamoeba Butschlii,Cysts      
    Found worldwide; often present in large intestine; medically believed to be nonpathogenic.

    PZ 23    Iodamoeba Butschlii, Trophozoites       
    Found worldwide; often present in large intestine; medically believed to be nonpathogenic.

    PZ 24    Leishmania Amazonensis, Promastigotes    
    Found in the Americas; causes Leishmaniasis/ Leishmaniois (ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose).

    PZ 25    Leishmania Donovani    
    Prevalent throughout tropical and temperate regions including Africa (mostly in Sudan), China, India, Nepal, southern Europe, Russia and South America; causes Leishmaniasis/ Leishmaniois (ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose).

    PZ 26    Leishmania Major    
    Found only in Northern Africa,the Middle East, Northwestern China, and Northwestern India; causes Leishmaniasis/ Leishmaniois (ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose).

    PZ 27    Leishmania Tropica Major    
    Found in Ethiopia, India, European Mediterranean region, Middle East, Kenya and North Africa; causes Leishmaniasis/ Leishmaniois (ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose).

    PZ 28    Plasmodium Falciparum    
    Much more prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa than in many other regions of the world; causes the most dangerous form of malaria.

    PZ 29    Plasmodium Malariae    
    Widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa, much of southeast Asia, Indonesia, on many of the islands of the western Pacific and in areas of the Amazon Basin of South America; causes the least dangerous form of malaria - benign/recurring malaria.

    PZ 30    Plasmodium Ovale     
    Relatively rare compared with other Plasmodium; limited to West Africa, the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam; causes  benign/recurring malaria.

    PZ 31    Plasmodium Vivax    
    Found mainly in Asia and South America; the most frequent and widely distributed cause of benign /recurring malaria.

    PZ 32    Toxoplasma Gondii, Cysts    
    One of the most common human parasites; often from eating undercooked pork; also soil, water and food contaminated with faeces from infected animals (particularly cats); may be sexually transmitted in humans, although not yet proven; up to a third of the global population has been exposed to and may be chronically infected with it, although infection rates differ significantly from country to country; causes toxoplasmosis; acute toxoplasmosis is often asymptomatic in healthy adults, but symptoms may occur and are often influenza-like (swollen lymph nodes, or muscle aches and pains that last for a month or more); may also cause subtle behavioural or personality changes; infection with the parasite  associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder,  schizophrenia and also suicides. This online blog article has a lot of interesting information about Toxoplasma gondii.

    PZ 33    Toxoplasma Gondii, Trophozoites    
    One of the most common human parasites; often from eating undercooked pork; also soil, water and food contaminated with faeces from infected animals (particularly cats); may be sexually transmitted in humans, although not yet proven; up to a third of the global population has been exposed to and may be chronically infected with it, although infection rates differ significantly from country to country; causes toxoplasmosis; acute toxoplasmosis is often asymptomatic in healthy adults, but symptoms may occur and are often influenza-like (swollen lymph nodes, or muscle aches and pains that last for a month or more); may also cause subtle behavioural or personality changes; infection with the parasite  associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder,  schizophrenia and also suicides.

    PZ 34    Trichomonas Vaginalis, Trophozoite    
    Vaginitis in woman; occasionally in men, affecting urethra, but usually asymptomatic. Usually sexually transmitted.

    PZ 35    Trypanosoma Cruzi    
    Chagas disease in South America and sleeping sickness in Africa.

    PZ 36    Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense    
    Causes Central African sleeping sickness.

    PZ 37    Trypanosoma Brucei Rhodesiense    
    Causes South African sleeping sickness.

  • Comments

    Some protozoa have life stages alternating between active stages (e.g., trophozoites) and dormant cysts. As cysts, protozoa can survive harsh conditions, such as exposure to extreme temperatures or harmful chemicals, or long periods without access to nutrients, water, or oxygen for a period of time. Being a cyst enables parasitic species to survive outside of a host, and allows their transmission from one host to another. When protozoa are in the form of trophozoites (Greek, tropho = to nourish), they actively feed. The conversion of a trophozoite to cyst form is known as encystation, while the process of transforming back into a trophozoite is known as excystation. Protozoa can reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission. Some protozoa reproduce sexually, some asexually, while some use a combination, (e.g., Coccidia). An individual protozoan is hermaphroditic.

    Amastigote does not have visible external flagella or cilia. The term is used mainly to describe a certain phase in the life-cycle of trypanosome protozoans. It is also called the leishmanial stage, since in Leishmania it is the form the parasite takes in the vertebrate host, but occurs in all trypanosome genera.

    Promastigote – this is a stage in the insect host. Promastigotes enter the blood when a person is bitten by the insect. They quickly enter the amastigote stage (see above). Ideally we would have referred to include the amastigote stage rather than the promastigote stage for some vials, but we have included the promastigote stage if the amastigote stage was not available at this time.

    A trophozoite (G. trophē, nourishment + zōon, animal) is the activated, intracellular feeding stage in the life cycle.

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