Neurotransmitter Test Kit
Important neurotransmitters that affect breathing, digestion,mood and much else.
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This is information on all our test kits. 200+ pages as a PDF document.
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Important neurotransmitters that affect breathing, digestion,mood and much else.
N 1 01 Acetylcholine / ACh
Acts on both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system and is the only neurotransmitter used in the motor division of the somatic nervous system. Also the principal neurotransmitter in all autonomic ganglia. In cortex increases responsiveness to sensory stimuli; decreases heart rate and contraction strength, dilates blood vessels, increases peristalsis in the stomach and digestive contractions, decreases bladder capacity, increases voluntary voiding pressure; also affects the respiratory system and stimulates secretion by all glands that receive parasympathetic nerve impulses. Important in memory and learning and is deficient in the brains of those with late-stage Alzheimer disease. May be involved in myasthenia gravis; nicotine binds to same receptors.
N 1 02 Adenosine
In general has an inhibitory effect in the central nervous system. Involved in regulating blood flow to various organs through vasodilation; believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. Affects central nervous system and peripheral nervous system; constituent of ATP and ADP. May be involved with asthma; stimulatory effect of tea and coffee because inhibits adenosine.
N 1 03 Anandamide
Pain control; may be used by the brain as a central fine-tuner of electrical activity; inhibits movement; involved with mood; short-term memory; male fertility (high levels slow speed of sperm); acts as a chemical messenger between the embryo and uterus during implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall; may control coughing and various respiratory functions; may increase appetite. Also known as the bliss molecule (‘ananda’ is Sanskrit for bliss); also called the body’s own cannabis (cannabis binds to the same receptors as anandamide); chocolate contains anandamide; may be involved in Crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, drug addiction, schizophrenia, autism and Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome.
N 1 04 L-Aspartate
Also an amino acid. Stimulates NMDA receptors, the predominant molecular device for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function; involved in conveying pain messages.
N 1 05 Dopamine
In parts of the brain that control subconscious movement of skeletal muscles; regulating muscle tone; increases the efficiency of the heartbeat and helps return the blood pressure to normal; involved in emotional responses, such as reward-seeking behaviour; most responsible for cognitive alertness. Decreased levels associated with Parkinson’s disease; increased levels with schizophrenia; may be involved with ADD, autism, La Tourette's syndrome and depression. All drugs that create a dependency artificially increase the amount of dopamine in the reward circuits.
N 1 06 Epinephrine / Adrenalin
Helps body resist stress by increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, accelerating respiration, decreasing digestion, increasing efficiency of muscular contractions, increasing blood sugar, stimulating cellular metabolism.
N 1 07 GABA / Gamma-Aminobutyrate Acid
An amino acid. The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; plays the principal role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system; blocks noradrenaline and dopamine. Deficiencies found in hypertension and seizures; a target for anti-anxiety drugs.
N 1 08 Glutamic Acid/ Glutamate
Also an amino acid. Can be manufactured by the body; precursor of proline, ornithine, arginine and polyamines; a stimulatory neurotransmitter; can be converted by the body into GABA; the most common neurotransmitter in the brain; always excitatory; nearly all excitatory neurons in the CNS and possibly half of the synapses in the brain communicate via glutamate; involved in visual adaptation to light and dark; involved in conveying pain messages. Associated with learning and memory. May be involved in Alzheimer’s disease. Many epileptics have increased levels of glutamic acid; part of the acute reaction to withdrawal from drug addiction includes increased production of glutamate.
N 1 09
Glycine Also an amino acid. Can be synthesized from other amino acids (serine and threonine); acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina; assists in manufacture of DNA, glycerol, phospholipids, collagen, glutathione and cholesterol conjugates; essential for one of key liver detoxification pathways; stimulates secretion of glucagons. Implicated in Parkinson’s disease; low levels often found in manic-depressives and epileptics; people with motor neurone disease may have impaired glycine metabolism.
N 1 10 Histamine
Involved in sleep-wake regulation, by increasing wakefulness and prevent sleep; also protects against the susceptibility to convulsion, drug sensitization, denervation super-sensitivity, ischemic lesions and stress; may controls the mechanisms by which memories and learning are forgotten; may be involved in some forms of alcoholism. Released during an allergic reaction and inflammation; narrows bronchi in lungs, increases permeability of blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, causes itching and stimulates production of acid in the stomach; secretion of digestive juices. May be implicated in some types of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis.
N 1 11 Nitric Oxide
Serves as a neurotransmitter between nerve cells, part of its general role in redox signalling (helping cells protect themselves, detect damage and then either repair or replace damaged cells). Also of critical importance as a mediator of vasodilation in blood vessels, so playing a key role in renal control of extracellular fluid homeostasis, the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, and in erection of the penis.
N 1 12 Norepinephrine/ Noradrenaline
Most responsible for vigilant concentration and underlies flight-fight response; helps body resist stress by increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, accelerating respiration, decreasing digestion, increasing efficiency of muscular contractions, increasing blood sugar, stimulating cellular metabolism.
N 1 13 Serotonin / 5-Hydroxytryptamine /5-HT
Primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and the central nervous system; concerned with conscious processes, involved in controlling states of consciousness and mood; sensory perception; induces sleep; temperature regulation; released at site of bleeding to constrict small blood vessels and control blood loss; involved in conveying pain messages; inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates smooth muscles in the intestinal wall; decreases carbohydrate cravings; provides a feeling of fullness; inhibits release of prolactin. Action in brain disrupted by some hallucinogenic drugs, particularly LSD; excess serotonin implicated in Raynaud’s disease. Also found in insect venoms, plant spines and in many seeds and fruits.
Scientists have now identified some 60 different molecules that meet the criteria for being regarded as neurotransmitters, so this is inevitably a partial list, but covers the ones I believe will be most useful in your work.
A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance released at the end of a nerve fibre by the arrival of a nerve impulse. Then, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, it effects the transfer of the nerve impulse to another nerve fibre, a muscle fibre, or some other structure.
Inhibitory neurotransmitters – reduce the effect of the nerve impulses in the neuron
Excitatory neurotransmitters - increase the effect of the nerve impulses in the neuron