Elements (Revised) Test Kit
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Detailed Description of this kit.
Full Test Kit Information (A4 size paper)
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Full Test Kit Information (North America paper size)
This is information on all our test kits. 200+ pages as a PDF document.
How The Kits Are Made
Dietary Sources: In some food additives. In food cooked in aluminium pans or stored in aluminium foil.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, fireworks, table salt & baking powder; aluminium cans; antacids; bleached flour; mains water treatment (aluminium sulfate); some food additives; deodorants; acid rain leaches aluminium out of the soil and into the ground water.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Contact dermatitis; skeletal demineralization; slow learning; interference with calcium and phosphorus metabolism, neurofibrillary tangles in the brain; possibly linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Non-Dietary Sources: Concentrated in the areas used for the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1945 and 1980, as well as at the sites of nuclear incidents, such as the Chernobyl disaster.
Non-Dietary Sources: Fireworks, fire retardants; used as an alloy with lead and tin; in solders; compounds used in matches.
Non-Dietary Sources: Constitutes 0.934% by volume and 1.288% by mass of the Earth's atmosphere.
Dietary Sources: High levels may be found in rice, as a result of water used in growing the crop, being contaminated with arsenic from arsenic-based-pesticides even though use may have been stopped many years ago).
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, wood preservative; pesticide; leather, termite treated lumber, rat poisoning, pesticides, herbicides, pigments. Drinking water in areas where there are arsenic deposits. (More than 140 million people worldwide and 4 million Americans chronically ingest arsenic in their drinking water).
Possible Toxicity Signs: Edema of face and eyelids; generalised itching; sore mouth; inflammation of the eyes and nasal membranes; loss of appetite; nausea; vomiting; diarrhoea; dry skin; loss of hair and nails; may reduce intelligence in children. There are also well-documented risks of cancer, heart disease, and reduced lung function; may lead to stem cell dysfunction that impairs muscle healing and regeneration
Non-Dietary Sources: Fireworks, medical contrast media, paper products, jet fuel, pigments.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Vomiting; colic; diarrhoea; slow irregular pulse; high blood pressure; convulsive tremors; muscular paralysis; a neuro-toxin, liver degeneration, cardiac, renal and respiratory damage.
Non-Dietary Sources: Light structural material; beryllium oxide is used in ceramics, naturally found in tobacco; some dental alloys.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Reduces stores of magnesium; reduces organ function; shortness of breath; coughing; lung inflammation; tinnitus.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in cosmetics, pigments, and a few pharmaceuticals.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Deterioration of mental ability; confusion; tremor; impaired co-ordination.
Non-Dietary Sources: Fiberglass (insulation), polymers, ceramics, fertilizer, insecticides, laundry detergent.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Arthritis, allergies, weak muscles, low testosterone, brain health.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Reproductive infertility, eye, nose, and throat irritation.
Non-Dietary Sources: Flame retardants; some epilepsy drugs; used in production of some fizzy drinks (soda) commercial bread making.
Possible Deficiency Signs: A necessary cofactor in the biosynthesis of collagen IV.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Fatigue; weakness; irritability; disturbed sleep; slow mental processes; poor memory.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, e-cigarette vapour, galvanised iron; pesticides; plastics; fertilisers; tyres; plating; component in alloys and solders; PVC stabiliser, pigments, paints, pottery. Cadmium from industrial waste can leach back into soil and water and isn't degraded and so enters the food chain.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Disrupts the transport of the essential metals manganese and zinc into and out of cells; anaemia; kidney damage; probably carcinogenic; high blood pressure; lung damage; atherosclerosis; leg pain in children & adults; arthritis; Alzheimer’s disease.
Caesium / Cesium
Non-Dietary Sources: A relatively rare element estimated to average 3 parts per million in the Earth's crust.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Hypokalemia, arrhythmia, and acute cardiac arrest (from higher doses than normally encountered).
Dietary Sources: Dairy products, eggs, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, tofu, thyme, oregano, dill, cinnamon.
Non-Dietary Sources: Preparation of other metals; calcium oxide important in chemical industry; present in hard water; fireworks; used to reduce the radar signature of exhaust plumes in the SR-71 Blackbird military aircraft.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Reduction in peak bone mass; increased risk of osteoporosis in later life; nerve sensitivity; insomnia; chronic depression; synthesis and release of neurotransmitters.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Depressed nerve function, drowsiness, extreme lethargy, calcium deposits, kidney stones.
Non-Dietary Sources: Essential to all known living systems; many biological and chemical compounds. Graphite, charcoal, carbon steel, diamonds, propellant in fireworks, printing ink, laser print toner, water purification, kitchen extractor hoods; in medicine to absorb toxins, poisons, or gases from the digestive system.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Often occurs together with calcium in phosphate minerals, and bones are primarily calcium phosphate, cerium can accumulate in bones in small amounts that are not considered dangerous.
Dietary Sources: Table salt (as sodium chloride)
Non-Dietary Sources: Manufacture of chemicals, plastics, paper, purification of water and sewage, fireworks. Sodium chloride used to de-ice roads.
Dietary Sources: Broccoli, grape juice (especially red), meat, whole grain products.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, e-cigarette vapour, dental work; metal plating & anodizing aluminium; stainless steel; hip replacements; leather tanning; paints; dyes; explosives; cement.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Diabetes; hypoglycemia; alcohol intolerance; irritability; weakness.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Lung disease, anaemia, cerebral oedema, eczema, headaches gastric ulcers.
Non-Dietary Sources: Manufacture of tungsten carbide; hip replacements.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Anaemia.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Goitre; hypothyroidism; heart failure; tremors; polycythemia.
Dietary Sources: Liver, seafood, oysters, nuts, seeds; some: whole grains, legumes.
Non-Dietary Sources: Copper water pipes (particularly in soft water areas); some medicines; pesticides; fungicides; brake linings; wiring; some contraceptive devices; dental amalgam; coins, algicides in hot tubs, fireworks. Blood copper levels raised by the contraceptive pill.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular disease; impaired immune system; affects bone & blood formation in infants; possible role in cardiovascular disease.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular disease; gastro-intestinal irritation (similar to deficiency signs). Zinc deficiency symptoms.
Non-Dietary Sources: Never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in many minerals, including xenotime, fergusonite, gadolinite, euxenite, polycrase, blomstrandine, monazite and bastnäsite.
Non-Dietary Sources: Always found in chemical combination with other elements.
Non-Dietary Sources: Not found in nature as a free element. Many minerals contain europium, with the most important sources being bastnäsite, monazite and xenotime.
Non-Dietary Sources: Herbicides and fungicides; some drugs; inhaled anaesthetics; radioactive tracers for PET scanning; fluoride toothpastes; in some water naturally and added to some other water supplies.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Highly toxic.
Non-Dietary Sources: MRI contrast agent, iron & chromium production, nuclear reactor shielding.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Kidney disorders, decreased white blood cell count, tremors, pain (muscle, bone, burning, tingling, sharp, etc.), hair loss, ocular issues, edema, etc.
Non-Dietary Sources: Drugs; radionuclide scanning for malignant diseases; used in the production of artificial gadolinium gallium garnet for jewellery.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in electronic devices; fibre-optics; chemotherapy drugs; fly ash of power plants fuelled from coal deposits that contain germanium.
Non-Dietary Sources: Dental work; jewellery; gold salts for treating rheumatoid arthritis.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Mouth ulceration; itching; eczema; seborrheic dermatitis; alopecia; inflamed gums; gastritis; colitis; blood abnormalities; kidney damage (from the effect of gold salts).
Non-Dietary Sources: Found in many zirconium minerals; used in filaments and electrodes.
Non-Dietary Sources: Balloons; used as a shielding gas in arc welding processes; used as a protective gas in some industrial processes.
Dietary Sources: Humans typically consume about a milligram of holmium a year from plants.
Non-Dietary Sources: Found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite; in high-strength magnets.
Non-Dietary Sources: Most abundant chemical substance in the Universe.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in the semiconductor industry.
Dietary Sources: Seaweed, grains, eggs, iodised salt.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Goitre, reduced growth.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Excess salivation, sneezing, conjunctivitis, headaches, laryngitis, bronchitis, skin rashes; low sperm count.
Non-Dietary Sources: Electronics-related applications; used in devices that must withstand extremely high temperature; used for painting porcelain an intense black.
Dietary Sources: Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate
Non-Dietary Sources: Metal for building; steel, toner for photocopiers and printers, food additive, stainless steel, cast iron cookware; cosmetics (as iron oxide), fireworks.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Anaemia; fatigue; cracking at corner of mouth; recurrent mouth ulcers; sore tongue; poor hair growth; brittle nails; generalized itching.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Abdominal pain; arthritis; loss of libido; damage to liver, heart and pancreas; people with certain neuro- degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and dementia show excessive accumulation of iron in the brain.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in lighting and photography; concentration in the atmosphere is about 1 ppm.
Non-Dietary Sources: Numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon arc lamps for studio lights and projectors, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, GTAW electrodes, and other things. Lanthanum carbonate is used as a phosphate binder in cases of renal failure.
Dietary Sources: Present in all foods, generally at very low levels.
Non-Dietary Sources: Leaded petrol fumes; old water pipes; leaded paint; lead plumbing; solder; improperly glazed pottery; cigarette ash; cigarette smoke, e-cigarette vapour, lipstick, pewter; lead crystal ware.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Loss of appetite; constipation; headache; weakness; blue or black line on gums; anaemia; irritability; vomiting; poor co- ordination; unsteady gait; visual disturbances; delirium; paralysis; kidney failure; mainly deposited in bones and teeth.
Non-Dietary Sources: Glass, ceramics, steel & aluminium production, lithium batteries, iron additives, fireworks.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Depression, bipolar episodes.
Non-Dietary Sources: Very difficult to separate from other elements; few commercial uses.
Dietary Sources: Spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, peanut butter, avocado.
Non-Dietary Sources: Present in hard water; alloys; batteries; fireworks; glass; ceramics; fillers; flocculating agents; magnesium sulphate used in sugar refining. Indian coins.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Muscle dysfunction; irritability & tension; fatigue; pre-menstrual syndrome; apathy.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Muscle weakness; fatigue; sleepiness; hyper-excitability.
Dietary Sources: Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables, tea, coffee.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, e-cigarette vapour, textile bleaching, glass manufacture, fertilizers, compounds used in unleaded petrol and pesticides, pottery glazes. US dollar coin.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Joint pains; dizziness; schizophrenia.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Lethargy; involuntary movements; impairment of voluntary movements; changes in muscle tone.
Dietary Sources: Fish.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, dental amalgam; pesticides; fungicides; cystitis from coal- burning power stations, contaminated fish, vaccines, volcanic emissions, vaccines.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Tremor; muscle instability; sensory disturbances; gastro-intestinal symptoms; dermatitis; liver and kidney damage; anaemia; mental deterioration; blue line on gums.
Dietary Sources: Legumes, whole grains, nuts.
Non-Dietary Sources: Compounds used in lubricants.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Irritability; irregular heart beat; dental caries; male sexual impotence; cancer of the oesophagus, works as an antioxidant.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Gout; increased urinary excretion of copper.
Non-Dietary Sources: In powerful permanent magnets; used in China as fertiliser.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arresters, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium–neon lasers.
Dietary Sources: Present naturally in foods; average diet supplies 300-600 μg of nickel to the human body per day.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, e-cigarette vapour, stainless steel; water boiled in a kettle with an element; clasps; jewellery; spectacles; buckles; keys; coins; diesel fumes; can be in flour because of milling; a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils.
Possible Deficiency Signs: May activate certain enzymes and play a role in stabilizing chromosomal material in cell nuclei but at the moment no known diseases are associated with a nickel deficiency.
Possible Toxicity Signs: May be a factor in lung cancer; frontal headaches; vertigo; nausea; vomiting; chest pain; cough. Dermatitis from skin contact with nickel in sensitive people.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in high-grade structural steel.
Non-Dietary Sources: Occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate.
Non-Dietary Sources: Often alloyed with other metals for high-wear applications (e.g. the tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts, record styli).
Non-Dietary Sources: By mass, the third-most abundant element in the universe. Used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fat.
Non-Dietary Sources: Road dust from catalytic converters; dental work; electrical components.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Possibly carcinogenic.
Dietary Sources: Red meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.
Non-Dietary Sources: Fireworks.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Debility; loss of appetite; weakness; bone pain; tingling sensations; tremor; irritability.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Prevents absorption of iron, calcium, magnesium & zinc; diarrhoea; calcification of soft tissues.
Non-Dietary Sources: Jewellery, dental fillings, pacemakers, tobacco, road dust from catalytic converters, LCDs, chemotherapy agents; high quality glassware.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Platinum compounds have anti-tumor activity.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Platinum salts can cause DNA alterations, cancer, allergic reactions of the skin and the mucous membranes, damage to organs (such as intestines, kidneys and bone marrow) and hearing damage.
Dietary Sources: Sweet potato, tomato, potato, beans, lentils, dairy products, seafood, banana, prune, carrot, orange
Non-Dietary Sources: Fireworks
Possible Deficiency Signs: Hypokalaemia; can be caused by diarrhoea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and shortage in the diet.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Hyperkalaemia; usually no symptoms; occasionally when severe results in palpitations, muscle pain, muscle weakness, or numbness.
Non-Dietary Sources: A yellow-orange "Praseodymium Yellow" stain for ceramics.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in nuclear medicine.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in parts for jet engines.
Non-Dietary Sources: Road dust from catalytic converters; white gold often plated with rhodium to improve its appearance and sterling silver is also for tarnish resistance.
Non-Dietary Sources: Fireworks.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in electrical contacts; being actively researched for solar energy technologies.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in magnets in small motors, headphones, and high-end magnetic pickups for guitars and related musical instruments. Radioactive isotope samarium-153 is drug used in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and osteosarcoma.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in high-end sports goods (baseball bats, bicycle frames and components, and Lacrosse sticks). Some Smith & Wesson semi-automatic pistols and revolvers have frames of scandium alloy. Used to strengthen aluminium alloys.
Dietary Sources: Brazil nuts, seafoods, organ meats, meats, grains, dairy products, eggs.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, anti-dandruff shampoos; steel and glass additive.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Possible links with some forms of cancer & development of coronary heart disease; premature ageing.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Hair loss, nail changes and loss, fatigue, irritability, nausea, gastrointestinal problems, joint inflammation, “garlic breath”, dental caries; skin depigmentation; irritability.
Non-Dietary Sources: Granite dust; sand, cement, porcelain, semiconductor electronics; ingredient in some toothpastes.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Poor skin, nails, hair and bone density. Needed for synthesis of elastin and collagen, of which the aorta contains the greatest quantity in the human body.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Inhalation of crystalline silica dust may lead to silicosis, an occupational lung disease marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Non-Dietary Sources: Dental amalgam; jewellery; food colouring (E174); electrical components; silver compounds used in photography.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Argyria (blue-gray/ashen gray darkening of the eyes, nose, throat, skin and nasal septum), kidney damage.
Dietary Sources: As sodium chloride (salt); monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate.
Non-Dietary Sources: Sodium compounds used to produce glass, paper, soap, fireworks, and textiles. Most important sodium compounds are table salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O).
Possible Deficiency Signs: Muscle cramps; fatigue; nausea. (Sodium is an essential mineral that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH.)
Possible Toxicity Signs: Hypertension; fluid retention
Dietary Sources: Spices, whole grains, leafy green vegetables such as spinach and kale, seafood, root vegetables like carrots and parsnips, and legumes like beans, lentils and peas.
Non-Dietary Sources: Fireworks. Glass for colour television cathode ray tubes.
Possible Toxicity Signs: In the human body, most of the absorbed strontium is deposited in the bones.
Sulphur / Sulfur
Non-Dietary Sources: Natural gas, petroleum, fertilizer, insecticides, fireworks, matches, wood pulping, rubber vulcanisation, products for treating acne, dandruff, psoriasis etc.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Detoxification, proper insulin function, Vitamins B1 and B7 activation, mitochondrial function.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Digestive issues, flatulence, hives, fatigue.
Non-Dietary Sources: Production of electronic components, mainly capacitors and some high-power resistors.
Non-Dietary Sources: In copper and steel alloys.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in fluorescent lamps and television and monitor cathode ray tubes.
Non-Dietary Sources: Found in association with potassium-based minerals in clays, soils, and granites; by-product of zinc & lead production; some glass; jewellery; dyes; pigments; elecronics; recreational drug contaminant.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Polyneuritis; fatigue; weight loss; possibly reduced immunity; leg pain in adults; arthritis; MS; Alzheimer’s; pepolyneuritis; fatigue; weight loss; possibly reduced immunity; leg pain in adults; arthritis; MS; Alzheimer’s disease; probably carcinogenic.
Non-Dietary Sources: Widely used in laser technology in military applications, medicine, and meteorology.
Non-Dietary Sources: Dental amalgam; canning; solder in iron & copper pipes; compounds used in fungicides and glass coatings.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Nausea; colic; headache; weakness; fever; muscle pain; joint pain; tinnitus.
Non-Dietary Sources: Dental work; surgical metal in hip replacements etc.; jewellery; sunscreen, fireworks, filler in many prescription and OTC medicines, cosmetics (as titanium dioxide).
Possible Toxicity Signs: Possible effects on respiratory system and the brain; may be carcinogenic.
Tungsten / Wolfram
Non-Dietary Sources: Used to produce tungsten carbide, alloys and steel.
Non-Dietary Sources: Nuclear power plants and weapons.
Dietary Sources: Some mineral water springs.
Non-Dietary Sources: Catalytic converters; chemical catalyst.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Sugar cravings, inability to lose weight.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Bipolar disorder.
Non-Dietary Sources: Found in the Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Used in flash lamps, arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic.
Non-Dietary Sources: Used in nuclear medicine and atomic clocks.
Non-Dietary Sources: Red component of color television cathode ray tubes; synthetic garnets; in some drugs to treat cancer.
Dietary Sources: Oysters, red meat, poultry, nuts, whole grains, dairy products.
Non-Dietary Sources: Cigarette smoke, galvanised iron; brass; solder; die-casting; tires; zinc oxide is used in paints, rubber, textiles, fireworks, sunscreens, cosmetics and plastics.
Possible Deficiency Signs: Persistent leg ulcers & pressure sores; red, greasy skin on face; skin problems, poor hair growth; dandruff; night blindness; brittle nails; white spots on nails.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Impaired copper & iron absorption; gastro-intestinal disturbances; mask-like fixed expression; difficulty in walking; slurred speech; hand tremor; involuntary laughter.
Non-Dietary Sources: Dental implants, nuclear power, ceramics, glassware, antiperspirants, skin lotion, synthetic dyes, etc.
Possible Toxicity Signs: Pulmonary fibrosis, general pulmonary issues, granulomata.